Source code for scholarly._scholarly

import requests
import re
import os
import copy
import csv
import pprint
import datetime
import re
from typing import Dict, List, Union
from ._navigator import Navigator
from ._proxy_generator import ProxyGenerator
from dotenv import find_dotenv, load_dotenv
from .author_parser import AuthorParser
from .publication_parser import PublicationParser, _SearchScholarIterator
from .data_types import Author, AuthorSource, CitesPerYear, Journal, Publication, PublicationSource

_AUTHSEARCH = '/citations?hl=en&view_op=search_authors&mauthors={0}'
_KEYWORDSEARCH = '/citations?hl=en&view_op=search_authors&mauthors=label:{0}'
_KEYWORDSEARCHBASE = '/citations?hl=en&view_op=search_authors&mauthors={}'
_KEYWORDSEARCH_PATTERN = "[-: #(),;]+"  # Unallowed characters in the keywords.
_PUBSEARCH = '/scholar?hl=en&q={0}'
_CITEDBYSEARCH = '/scholar?hl=en&cites={0}'
_ORGSEARCH = "/citations?view_op=view_org&hl=en&org={0}"

[docs]class _Scholarly: """Class that manages the API for scholarly""" def __init__(self): load_dotenv(find_dotenv()) self.env = os.environ.copy() self.__nav = Navigator() self.logger = self.__nav.logger self._journal_categories = None @property def journal_categories(self): if self._journal_categories is None: self._journal_categories = self.get_journal_categories() return self._journal_categories
[docs] def set_retries(self, num_retries: int)->None: """Sets the number of retries in case of errors :param num_retries: the number of retries :type num_retries: int """ return self.__nav._set_retries(num_retries)
[docs] def use_proxy(self, proxy_generator: ProxyGenerator, secondary_proxy_generator: ProxyGenerator = None) -> None: """Select which proxy method to use. See the available ProxyGenerator methods. This is used to get some pages that have strong anti-bot prevention. ``secondary_proxy_generator`` is used for other pages that do not have a strong anti-bot prevention. If not set, free proxies are used. :param proxy_generator: a proxy generator object, typically setup with a premium proxy service (ScraperAPI or Luminati) :type proxy_generator: ProxyGenerator :param proxy_generator: a second proxy generator object, optional :type proxy_generator: ProxyGenerator :Example:: .. testcode:: pg = ProxyGenerator() pg.ScraperAPI(YOUR_SCRAPER_API_KEY) scholarly.use_proxy(pg) """ self.__nav.use_proxy(proxy_generator, secondary_proxy_generator)
[docs] def set_logger(self, enable: bool): """Enable or disable the logger for google scholar. Enabled by default """ self.__nav.set_logger(enable)
[docs] def set_timeout(self, timeout: int): """Set timeout period in seconds for scholarly""" self.__nav.set_timeout(timeout)
[docs] def search_pubs(self, query: str, patents: bool = True, citations: bool = True, year_low: int = None, year_high: int = None, sort_by: str = "relevance", include_last_year: str = "abstracts", start_index: int = 0)->_SearchScholarIterator: """Searches by query and returns a generator of Publication objects :param query: terms to be searched :type query: str :param patents: Whether or not to include patents, defaults to True :type patents: bool, optional :param citations: Whether or not to include citations, defaults to True :type citations: bool, optional :param year_low: minimum year of publication, defaults to None :type year_low: int, optional :param year_high: maximum year of publication, defaults to None :type year_high: int, optional :param sort_by: 'relevance' or 'date', defaults to 'relevance' :type sort_by: string, optional :param include_last_year: 'abstracts' or 'everything', defaults to 'abstracts' and only applies if 'sort_by' is 'date' :type include_last_year: string, optional :param start_index: starting index of list of publications, defaults to 0 :type start_index: int, optional :returns: Generator of Publication objects :rtype: Iterator[:class:`Publication`] :Example:: .. testcode:: search_query = scholarly.search_pubs('Perception of physical stability and center of mass of 3D objects') scholarly.pprint(next(search_query)) # in order to pretty print the result :Output:: .. testoutput:: {'author_id': ['4bahYMkAAAAJ', 'ruUKktgAAAAJ', ''], 'bib': {'abstract': 'Humans can judge from vision alone whether an object is ' 'physically stable or not. Such judgments allow observers ' 'to predict the physical behavior of objects, and hence ' 'to guide their motor actions. We investigated the visual ' 'estimation of physical stability of 3-D objects (shown ' 'in stereoscopically viewed rendered scenes) and how it ' 'relates to visual estimates of their center of mass ' '(COM). In Experiment 1, observers viewed an object near ' 'the edge of a table and adjusted its tilt to the ' 'perceived critical angle, ie, the tilt angle at which ' 'the object', 'author': ['SA Cholewiak', 'RW Fleming', 'M Singh'], 'pub_year': '2015', 'title': 'Perception of physical stability and center of mass of 3-D ' 'objects', 'venue': 'Journal of vision'}, 'citedby_url': '/scholar?cites=15736880631888070187&as_sdt=5,33&sciodt=0,33&hl=en', 'eprint_url': '', 'filled': False, 'gsrank': 1, 'num_citations': 23, 'pub_url': '', 'source': 'PUBLICATION_SEARCH_SNIPPET', 'url_add_sclib': '/citations?hl=en&xsrf=&continue=/scholar%3Fq%3DPerception%2Bof%2Bphysical%2Bstability%2Band%2Bcenter%2Bof%2Bmass%2Bof%2B3D%2Bobjects%26hl%3Den%26as_sdt%3D0,33&citilm=1&json=&update_op=library_add&info=K8ZpoI6hZNoJ&ei=QhqhX66wKoyNy9YPociEuA0', 'url_scholarbib': '/scholar?'} """ url = self._construct_url(_PUBSEARCH.format(requests.utils.quote(query)), patents=patents, citations=citations, year_low=year_low, year_high=year_high, sort_by=sort_by, include_last_year=include_last_year, start_index=start_index) return self.__nav.search_publications(url)
[docs] def search_citedby(self, publication_id: Union[int, str], **kwargs): """Searches by Google Scholar publication id and returns a generator of Publication objects. :param publication_id: Google Scholar publication id :type publication_id: int or str For the remaining parameters, see documentation of `search_pubs`. """ url = self._construct_url(_CITEDBYSEARCH.format(str(publication_id)), **kwargs) return self.__nav.search_publications(url)
[docs] def search_single_pub(self, pub_title: str, filled: bool = False)->PublicationParser: """Search by scholar query and return a single Publication container object :param pub_title: Title of the publication to search :type pub_title: string :param filled: Whether the application should be filled with additional information :type filled: bool """ url = _PUBSEARCH.format(requests.utils.quote(pub_title)) return self.__nav.search_publication(url, filled)
[docs] def search_author(self, name: str): """Search by author name and return a generator of Author objects :Example:: .. testcode:: search_query = scholarly.search_author('Marty Banks, Berkeley') scholarly.pprint(next(search_query)) :Output:: .. testoutput:: {'affiliation': 'Professor of Vision Science, UC Berkeley', 'citedby': 21074, 'email_domain': '', 'filled': False, 'interests': ['vision science', 'psychology', 'human factors', 'neuroscience'], 'name': 'Martin Banks', 'scholar_id': 'Smr99uEAAAAJ', 'source': 'SEARCH_AUTHOR_SNIPPETS', 'url_picture': ''} """ url = _AUTHSEARCH.format(requests.utils.quote(name)) return self.__nav.search_authors(url)
[docs] def fill(self, object: dict, sections=[], sortby: str = "citedby", publication_limit: int = 0) -> Author or Publication: """Fills the object according to its type. If the container type is Author it will fill the additional author fields If it is Publication it will fill it accordingly. :param object: the Author or Publication object that needs to get filled :type object: Author or Publication :param sections: the sections that the user wants filled for an Author object. This can be: ['basics', 'indices', 'counts', 'coauthors', 'publications', 'public_access'] :type sections: list :param sortby: if the object is an author, select the order of the citations in the author page. Either by 'citedby' or 'year'. Defaults to 'citedby'. :type sortby: string :param publication_limit: if the object is an author, select the max number of publications you want you want to fill for the author. Defaults to no limit. :type publication_limit: int Note: For Author objects, if 'public_access' is filled prior to 'publications', only the total counts from the Public Access section of the author's profile page is filled. If 'public_access' is filled along with 'publications' or afterwards for the first time, the publication entries are also marked whether they satisfy public access mandates or not. """ if object['container_type'] == "Author": author_parser = AuthorParser(self.__nav) object = author_parser.fill(object, sections, sortby, publication_limit) if object is False: raise ValueError("Incorrect input") elif object['container_type'] == "Publication": publication_parser = PublicationParser(self.__nav) object = publication_parser.fill(object) return object
[docs] def bibtex(self, object: Publication)->str: """Returns a bibtex entry for a publication that has either Scholar source or citation source :param object: The Publication object for the bibtex exportation :type object: Publication """ if object['container_type'] == "Publication": publication_parser = PublicationParser(self.__nav) return publication_parser.bibtex(object) else: self.logger.warning("Object not supported for bibtex exportation") return
[docs] @staticmethod def _bin_citations_by_year(cites_per_year: CitesPerYear, year_end): years = [] y_hi, y_lo = year_end, year_end running_count = 0 for y in sorted(cites_per_year, reverse=True): if running_count + cites_per_year[y] <= 1000: running_count += cites_per_year[y] y_lo = y else: running_count = cites_per_year[y] years.append((y_hi, y_lo)) y_hi = y if running_count > 0: years.append((y_hi, y_lo)) return years
[docs] def citedby(self, object: Publication)->_SearchScholarIterator: """Searches Google Scholar for other articles that cite this Publication and returns a Publication generator. :param object: The Publication object for the bibtex exportation :type object: Publication """ if object['container_type'] != "Publication": self.logger.warning("Object not supported for bibtex exportation") return if object["num_citations"] <= 1000: return PublicationParser(self.__nav).citedby(object) self.logger.debug("Since the paper titled %s has %d citations (>1000), " "fetching it on an annual basis.", object["bib"]["title"], object["num_citations"]) year_end = int( if object["source"] == PublicationSource.AUTHOR_PUBLICATION_ENTRY: self.fill(object) years = self._bin_citations_by_year(object.get("cites_per_year", {}), year_end) else: try: year_low = int(object["bib"]["pub_year"]) except KeyError: self.logger.warning("Unknown publication year for paper %s, may result in incorrect number " "of citedby papers.", object["bib"]["title"]) return PublicationParser(self.__nav).citedby(object) # Go one year at a time in decreasing order years = zip(range(year_end, year_low-1, -1), range(year_end, year_low-1, -1)) # Extract cites_id. Note: There could be multiple ones, separated by commas. m ="cites=[\d+,]*", object["citedby_url"]) pub_id =[6:] for y_hi, y_lo in years: sub_citations = self.search_citedby(publication_id=pub_id, year_low=y_lo, year_high=y_hi) if sub_citations.total_results and (sub_citations.total_results > 1000): self.logger.warn("The paper titled %s has %d citations in the year %d. " "Due to the limitation in Google Scholar, fetching only 1000 results " "from that year.", object["bib"]["title"], sub_citations.total_results, y_lo) yield from sub_citations
[docs] def search_author_id(self, id: str, filled: bool = False, sortby: str = "citedby", publication_limit: int = 0)->Author: """Search by author id and return a single Author object :param sortby: select the order of the citations in the author page. Either by 'citedby' or 'year'. Defaults to 'citedby'. :type sortby: string :param publication_limit: if the object is an author, select the max number of publications you want you want to fill for the author. Defaults to no limit. :type publication_limit: int :Example:: .. testcode:: search_query = scholarly.search_author_id('EmD_lTEAAAAJ') scholarly.pprint(search_query) :Output:: .. testoutput:: {'affiliation': 'Institut du radium, University of Paris', 'citedby': 2208, 'filled': False, 'interests': [], 'name': 'Marie Skłodowska-Curie', 'scholar_id': 'EmD_lTEAAAAJ', 'source': 'AUTHOR_PROFILE_PAGE', 'url_picture': ''} """ return self.__nav.search_author_id(id, filled, sortby, publication_limit)
[docs] def search_keyword(self, keyword: str): """Search by keyword and return a generator of Author objects :param keyword: keyword to be searched :type keyword: str :Example:: .. testcode:: search_query = scholarly.search_keyword('Haptics') scholarly.pprint(next(search_query)) :Output:: .. testoutput:: {'affiliation': 'Postdoctoral research assistant, University of Bremen', 'citedby': 56666, 'email_domain': '', 'filled': False, 'interests': ['Computer Graphics', 'Collision Detection', 'Haptics', 'Geometric Data Structures'], 'name': 'Rene Weller', 'scholar_id': 'lHrs3Y4AAAAJ', 'source': 'SEARCH_AUTHOR_SNIPPETS', 'url_picture': ''} """ reg_keyword = re.sub(_KEYWORDSEARCH_PATTERN, "_", keyword) url = _KEYWORDSEARCH.format(requests.utils.quote(reg_keyword)) return self.__nav.search_authors(url)
[docs] def search_keywords(self, keywords: List[str]): """Search by keywords and return a generator of Author objects :param keywords: a list of keywords to be searched :type keyword: List[str] :Example:: .. testcode:: search_query = scholarly.search_keywords(['crowdsourcing', 'privacy']) scholarly.pprint(next(search_query)) :Output:: .. testoutput:: {'affiliation': 'Cornell University', 'citedby': 40976, 'email_domain': '', 'filled': False, 'interests': ['Crowdsourcing', 'privacy', 'social computing', 'game theory', 'user-generated content'], 'name': 'Arpita Ghosh', 'scholar_id': '_cMw1IUAAAAJ', 'source': 'SEARCH_AUTHOR_SNIPPETS', 'url_picture': ''} """ reg_keywords = (re.sub(_KEYWORDSEARCH_PATTERN, "_", keyword) for keyword in keywords) formated_keywords = ['label:'+requests.utils.quote(keyword) for keyword in reg_keywords] formated_keywords = '+'.join(formated_keywords) url = _KEYWORDSEARCHBASE.format(formated_keywords) return self.__nav.search_authors(url)
[docs] def search_pubs_custom_url(self, url: str)->_SearchScholarIterator: """Search by custom URL and return a generator of Publication objects URL should be of the form '/scholar?q=...' A typical use case is to generate the URL by first typing in search parameters in the Advanced Search dialog box and then use the URL here to programmatically fetch the results. :param url: custom url to seach for the publication :type url: string """ return self.__nav.search_publications(url)
[docs] def search_author_custom_url(self, url: str)->Author: """Search by custom URL and return a generator of Author objects URL should be of the form '/citation?q=...' :param url: url for the custom author url :type url: string """ return self.__nav.search_authors(url)
[docs] def pprint(self, object: Author or Publication)->None: """Pretty print an Author or Publication container object :param object: Publication or Author container object :type object: Author or Publication """ if 'container_type' not in object: self.logger.warning("Not a scholarly container object") return to_print = copy.deepcopy(object) if to_print['container_type'] == 'Publication': to_print['source'] = PublicationSource(to_print['source']).name elif to_print['container_type'] == 'Author': parser = AuthorParser(self.__nav) to_print['source'] = AuthorSource(to_print['source']).name if parser._sections == to_print['filled']: to_print['filled'] = True else: to_print['filled'] = False if 'coauthors' in to_print: for coauthor in to_print['coauthors']: coauthor['filled'] = False del coauthor['container_type'] coauthor['source'] = AuthorSource(coauthor['source']).name if 'publications' in to_print: for publication in to_print['publications']: publication['source'] = PublicationSource(publication['source']).name del publication['container_type'] del to_print['container_type'] print(pprint.pformat(to_print).encode("utf-8"))
[docs] def search_org(self, name: str, fromauthor: bool = False) -> list: """ Search by organization name and return a list of possible disambiguations :Example:: .. testcode:: search_query = scholarly.search_org('ucla') print(search_query) :Output:: .. testoutput:: [{'Organization': 'University of California, Los Angeles', 'id': '14108176128635076915'}, {'Organization': 'Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado', 'id': '9670678584336165373'} ] """ url = _AUTHSEARCH.format(requests.utils.quote(name)) return self.__nav.search_organization(url, fromauthor)
[docs] def search_author_by_organization(self, organization_id: int): """ Search for authors in an organization and return a generator of Authors ``organization_id`` can be found from the organization name using ``search_org``. Alternatively, they can be found in the ``Author`` object. The returned authors are typically in the decreasing order of total citations. The authors must have a verified email address and set their affiliation appropriately to appear on this list. :param organization_id: unique integer id for each organization :type organization_id: integer """ url = _ORGSEARCH.format(organization_id) return self.__nav.search_authors(url)
[docs] def download_mandates_csv(self, filename: str, overwrite: bool = False, include_links: bool =True): """ Download the CSV file of the current mandates. """ if (not overwrite) and os.path.exists(filename): raise ValueError(f"{filename} already exists. Either provide a " "different filename or allow overwriting by " "setting overwrite=True") text = self.__nav._get_page(_MANDATES_URL, premium=False) if include_links: soup = self.__nav._get_soup("/citations?hl=en&view_op=mandates_leaderboard") text = text.replace("Funder,", "Funder,Policy,Cached,", 1) for agency in soup.find_all("td", class_="gsc_mlt_t"): cached = agency.find("span", class_="gs_a").a["href"] name = agency.a.text if name != "cached": policy = agency.a['href'] else: name = agency.text[:-10] policy = "" if "," in name: text = text.replace(f'"{name}",', f'"{name}",{policy},{cached},') else: text = text.replace(f"{name},", f"{name},{policy},{cached},") try: with open(filename, 'w') as f: f.write(text) except IOError: self.logger.error("Error writing mandates as %s", filename) finally: return text
# TODO: Make it a public method in v1.6
[docs] def _construct_url(self, baseurl: str, patents: bool = True, citations: bool = True, year_low: int = None, year_high: int = None, sort_by: str = "relevance", include_last_year: str = "abstracts", start_index: int = 0)-> str: """Construct URL from requested parameters.""" url = baseurl yr_lo = '&as_ylo={0}'.format(year_low) if year_low is not None else '' yr_hi = '&as_yhi={0}'.format(year_high) if year_high is not None else '' citations = '&as_vis={0}'.format(1 - int(citations)) patents = '&as_sdt={0},33'.format(1 - int(patents)) sortby = '' start = '&start={0}'.format(start_index) if start_index > 0 else '' if sort_by == "date": if include_last_year == "abstracts": sortby = '&scisbd=1' elif include_last_year == "everything": sortby = '&scisbd=2' else: self.logger.debug("Invalid option for 'include_last_year', available options: 'everything', 'abstracts'") return elif sort_by != "relevance": self.logger.debug("Invalid option for 'sort_by', available options: 'relevance', 'date'") return # improve str below return url + yr_lo + yr_hi + citations + patents + sortby + start
[docs] def get_journal_categories(self): """ Get a dict of journal categories and subcategories. """ soup = self.__nav._get_soup("/citations?view_op=top_venues&hl=en&vq=en") categories = {} for category in soup.find_all("a", class_="gs_md_li"): if not "vq=" in category['href']: continue vq = category['href'].split("&vq=")[1] categories[category.text] = {} categories[category.text][None] = vq for category in categories: vq = categories[category][None] if vq=="en": continue soup = self.__nav._get_soup(f"/citations?view_op=top_venues&hl=en&vq={vq}") for subcategory in soup.find_all("a", class_="gs_md_li"): if not f"&vq={vq}_" in subcategory['href']: continue categories[category][subcategory.text] = subcategory['href'].split("&vq=")[1] #print(categories) return categories
[docs] def get_journals(self, category='English', subcategory=None, include_comments: bool = False) -> Dict[int, Journal]: try: cat = self.journal_categories[category] try: subcat = cat[subcategory] url = f"/citations?view_op=top_venues&hl=en&vq={subcat}" soup = self.__nav._get_soup(url) ranks = soup.find_all("td", class_="gsc_mvt_p") names = soup.find_all("td", class_="gsc_mvt_t") h5indices = soup.find_all("a", class_="gs_ibl gsc_mp_anchor") h5medians = soup.find_all("span", class_="gs_ibl") #import pdb; pdb.set_trace() result = {} for rank, name, h5index, h5median in zip(ranks, names, h5indices, h5medians): url_citations = h5index['href'] comment = "" if include_comments: soup = self.__nav._get_soup(url_citations) try: for cmt in soup.find_all('ul', class_='gsc_mlhd_list')[1].find_all('li'): comment += cmt.text+"; " except IndexError: pass result[int(rank.text[:-1])] = Journal(name=name.text, h5_index=int(h5index.text), h5_median=int(h5median.text), url_citations=url_citations, comment=comment ) #print(result) return result except KeyError: raise ValueError("Invalid subcategory: %s for %s. Choose one from %s" % (subcategory, category, cat.keys())) except KeyError: raise ValueError("Invalid category: %s. Choose one from %s", category, self.journal_categories.keys())
[docs] def save_journals_csv(self, filename, category="English", subcategory=None, include_comments=False): """ Save a list of journals to a file in CSV format. """ journals = self.get_journals(category, subcategory, include_comments) try: with open(filename, 'w') as f: csv_writer = csv.writer(f) header = ['Publication', 'h5-index', 'h5-median'] + ['Comment']*include_comments csv_writer.writerow(header) for rank, journal in journals.items(): row = [journal['name'], journal['h5_index'], journal['h5_median']] + [journal.get('comment', '')]*include_comments csv_writer.writerow(row) except IOError: self.logger.error("Error writing journals as %s", filename) finally: return journals